Title and Citation The title of the case shows who is opposing whom.
The authors thank Ivan Cassuto and Nick Wenker for research assistance. Abstract The early twenty-first century has witnessed a boom in oil and natural gas production that promises to turn the United States into a new form of petrostate.
This boom raises various questions that scholars have begun to explore, including questions of risk governance, federalism, and export policy. Relatively neglected, however, have been questions of why the technological revolution behind the boom occurred and what this revolution teaches about innovation theory and policy.
The boom in U. Indeed, the broader story demonstrates how a blend of distinct policy levers, reasonably adjusted over time, can combine to foster a diverse innovation ecosystem that provides a robust platform for game-changing innovation.
As exemplified by this story, the centrality of other policy levers can mean that patents play only a modest role, even in spurring technological development by profit-driven private players. Russell Gold, The Boom: Cheaper and more stably priced natural gas, commonly derived from underground shale formations, has promised to provide a long-lasting boost to a flagging U.
An Analysis Based on Announced Projects 27http: Both positive and negative spillover effects associated with the boom in use of new extraction technologies—spillovers that range from the economic to the environmental or political 5For discussions of these effects, see, inter alia, the following sources: Employment and Income inat 5http: National Security 13http: October Through MayBull.
The technological revolution that preceded this U.
The revolution reflects a classic disruptive innovation, potentially the very kind of innovation that government policy should most look to foster. Yet few scholars have explored why this innovation occurred, or how the story behind the fracking revolution comports with or departs from dominant innovation theory.
This Article examines the public policies, economic forces, and private initiatives that helped produce the fracking revolution, focusing on the development of shale gas extraction in particular. The Article primarily concentrates on developments leading to the revolution, including decades of work that preceded late-twentieth century breakthroughs.
But the Article also gives some attention to the post-breakthrough diffusion of new extraction technologies and difficulties encountered as use of those technologies has become widespread. Studying innovation through a case study of the fracking revolution is apt in light of current levels of understanding.
Limits on our knowledge of the mechanics of innovation often renders generalized theorizing and narrow econometric studies of relatively little use for drawing practical, policy oriented conclusions. In this context, case studies of specific innovation trajectories can inform the intuitions that necessarily guide much present policymaking, and case studies can support and guide later theoretical and econometric efforts.
Such focused observational studies have substantial limits.
Feynman, Six Easy Pieces: As with careful recording of celestial motions in the early stages of the Scientific Revolution, careful observation of specific innovation trajectories might be among the best ways to advance understandings of innovation and innovation policy.
Why study fracking as a foundation for more nuanced innovation theory? Pharmaceutical, biotechnology, communications, and computer-related technologies have commonly provided the basis for modern debates about how innovation works.
Golden, Principles for Patent Remedies, 88 Tex.
Given the social and political salience of these technologies, the attention devoted to these areas is understandable. But energy technologies seem a more than worthy addition to this common grouping.
The energy sector has a long history of cutting-edge innovation, and innovations in energy technology have long undergirded innovation in much of the rest of the economy. The Industrial Revolution motored forward on the basis of, first, new technologies for harnessing wind and water 10Joel Mokyr, The Lever of Riches: Technological Creativity and Economic Progress 34 noting medieval advances in harnessing energy from wind and water.
The modern Information Revolution has relied on later advances in the production and harnessing of electrical energy.
Historical Perspectives on Electrification, 43 J. In short, energy technologies are vitally important, and fracking has proven remarkably so. It also happens to have a fascinating origin story. Gas Works, Economist, July 14,at 5, 5—6, available at http: Mitchell pursued a fringe strategy—exploring the Barnett Shale.
What Led to the Boom? Resources and Federal Actions 3http: A great number of these related to physical, legal, and economic infrastructure including pipelines, natural gas markets, and property systems for land and mineral rights, which provided a foundation upon which unconventional natural gas pioneers could successfully operate.
Significantly, private forces for innovation benefited substantially from public aid. In the s and s, the U.If we want to shift Aboriginal disadvantage, then self-determination is the only way, writes Sol Bellear.
Last week, I wrote a story for The Drum about the Bugmy High Court case. It sparked a. He was the first person to be put to trial for violating the acts on charges of criticizing Federalist president John Adams and disagreeing with Adams' decision to go to war against France.
Lyon was sentenced to four months in jail and ordered to pay a $1, fine and court costs. Movement Led the Way for North America’s First Legal Supervised Injection Site America’s first legal supervised injection site, as a case study.
The paper focuses on how the with mirrors, and then inject themselves with an illegal drug, usually heroin. Because they are at Insite, North America’s only supervised injection facility.
Introduction. The socio-theoretical framework of ‘governmentality’ has fundamentally challenged modern assumptions regarding the state, society and subject, resulting in categorically new perspectives on ‘power’ and the logic and ways in which subjects are governed in late modern contexts.
The Canadian Supreme Court recently upheld these hate speech laws in a unanimous decision known as Saskatchewan Human Rights Commission v. Whatcott. A Christian preacher was convicted and fined for saying that homosexuality was an abomination; that the Bible called it a sin.
Relying on the Supreme Court decision in R. v. Morgentaler In the latest procedural decision in the case, Consequently, when Canadian courts have dealt with the issue of foetal rights in the past, they have had to look at the question from a legal viewpoint, as .