Modifiers[ edit ] Familiaritytransfer-appropriate processingthe self-reference effectand the explicit nature of a stimulus modify the levels-of-processing effect by manipulating mental processing depth factors. Familiarity[ edit ] A stimulus will have a higher recall value if it is highly compatible with preexisting semantic structures Craik, According to semantic network theories, this is because such a stimulus will have many connections to other encoded memories, which are activated based on closeness in semantic network structure. The familiarity modifier has been tested in implicit memory experiments, where subjects report false memories when presented with related stimuli.
The aim of this study is to test the levels of processing theory to see if the level at which information is processed has an effect on recall. The hypothesis being tested was is that the participants who process the semantic list will have a greater word recall rate than those who process the structural level list.
One hundred further education students 68 females and 32 males, mean age The results of the experiment showed that those who processed the semantic word list on average recalled more correct words mean 8. Other researchers elaborated on this model, identifying additional structural components to each of the stores.
The above authors emphasize on the importance of rehearsal of audio-verbal material in short-term memory more specifically the phonological loop before it can be copied into the permanent long-term store. Unrehearsed material is lost. There are no structural blocks of memory corresponding to this process but memory can be described as a continuum of deepening levels of processing.
The persistence of a memory trace is a function of the depth of processing. Hypothesis The hypothesis is that the participants who process the semantic list will have a greater word recall rate than those who process the structural level list.
Method Design The hypothesis was tested by carrying out an experiment. Independent measures was the experimental design used to carry out the research. Independent Variable The independent variable is the lists given to the participants.
This is controlled by scheduling the experiment at 4. Ethical issue An issue is that since the participants are not given the full information at the start of the experiment it is essential that a full debriefing is given later.
Also all information about the participant must be kept confidential indefinitely unless the participant has agreed otherwise in advance. Participants The target population was all full time students at a centre of further education.
This method was used since it was the least time consuming method available. Each word list contained 15 words of general use that should not cause uncertainty in comprehension.
The following was also used: The first 50 were assigned to group A structuralthe other 50 assigned to group B semantic. For both groups the experimental conditions were kept constant. They were given sixty seconds to do this and then told to turn the paper face down again.
The lists of words produced by the participants were compared with the original lists, and the numbers of correctly recalled words were recorded.Study 10 Chapter 7 flashcards from arianna p. on StudyBlue. Based on Craik and Lockhart’s levels-of-processing theory, you should predict that a.
Bailey will have better recall of the words because she used semantic encoding. c. information-processing theory d. dual-coding theory dual-coding theory. 6. Your memory of how to do. Levels of Processing Approach (Craik & Lockhart, ) shallow processing - analysis of information based on physical or sensory characteristics.
deep processing - analysis of information based on meaning (e.g. images, other associations, past experiences) Rehearsal. Maintenance vs. Elaborative.
Levels of Processing Katie Crum. Abstract Levels of Processing The Levels of Processing theory suggests that memory is based on the depth of procedures used during intake of information.
There are three levels: shallow, medium, and deep level processing (Craik and Lockhart, ; as cited in Goldstein, ). A study by Craik and. Craik and Tulving- 17% structurally processed words remembered, 36% phonetically processed words remembered, 65% semantically processed words remembered.
Hyde and Jenkins- 5 conditions, rate words, recall increased with semantic processing. Levels-of-processing theory (Craik & Lockhart, ) pro-vides a basis for understanding how different rater training for study concerned with the effect of group size on learning of training material and accuracy of rating, found that small groups (consisting of 3,4, or .
Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing framework (theory) of memory (Craik and Lockhart, ) Be able to describe and evaluate the experiment which supports the framework.