There was little discussion of the power to oversee, review, or investigate executive activity at the Constitutional Convention of or later in The Federalist Paperswhich argued in favor of ratification of the Constitution.
Central assumption[ edit ] Central to the concept of an iron triangle is the assumption that bureaucratic agencies, as political entities, seek to create and consolidate their own power base.
In this view an agency's power is determined by its constituencynot by its consumers. For these purposes, "constituents" are politically active members sharing a common interest or goal; consumers are the expected recipients of goods or services provided by a governmental bureaucracy and are often identified in an agency's written goals or mission statement.
Apparent bureaucratic dysfunction may be attributable to the alliances formed between the agency and its constituency.
|The Report of the Commission and Proposals from Nobs 3. Support for Comrade Jacob Zuma 5.|
|In order to get their policies passed, the president and Congress must work with the bureaucracy. Controlling the bureaucracy can be difficult for the following reasons:|
|The pre-independence era, when the party was the umbrella organisation leading the campaign for independence; The post-independence era, when the party has had a prominent place in Indian politics. InHume had outlined his idea for a body representing Indian interests in an open letter to graduates of the University of Calcutta.|
|Recognized as a thoughtful problem-solver by our community, Lloyd has never backed down from a fight to stand up for our beliefs.|
The official goals of an agency may appear to be thwarted or ignored altogether at the expense of the citizenry it is designed to serve.
Cultivation of a constituency[ edit ] The need of a bureaucracy for a constituency sometimes leads to an agency's cultivation of a particular clientele. An agency may seek out those groups within its policy jurisdiction that will make the best allies and give it the most clout within the political arena.
Often, especially in a low-level bureaucracy, the consumers the supposed beneficiaries of an agency's services do not qualify as power brokers and thus make poor constituents. Large segments of the public have diffused interests, seldom vote, may be rarely or poorly organized and difficult to mobilize, and are often lacking in resources or financial muscle.
Less-educated and poorer citizens, for example, typically make the worst constituents from an agency's perspective.
Private or special interest groups, on the other hand, possess considerable power as they tend to be well-organized, have plenty of resources, are easily mobilized, and are extremely active in political affairs, through votingcampaign contributionsand lobbyingas well as proposing legislation themselves.
Thus it may be in an agency's interest to switch its focus from its officially designated consumers to a carefully selected clientele of constituents that will aid the agency in its quest for greater political influence.
Dynamics[ edit ] In the United States, power is exercised in the Congress, and particularly in congressional committees and subcommittees.
By aligning itself with selected constituencies, an agency may be able to affect policy outcomes directly in these committees and subcommittees. This is where an iron triangle may manifest itself.
The picture above displays the concept. At one corner of the triangle are interest groups constituencies. These are the powerful interest's groups that influence Congressional votes in their favor and can sufficiently influence the re-election of a member of Congress in return for supporting their programs.
At another corner sit members of Congress who also seek to align themselves with a constituency for political and electoral support. These congressional members support legislation that advances the interest group's agenda. Occupying the third corner of the triangle are bureaucrats, who are often pressured by the same powerful interest groups their agency is designated to regulate.
The result is a three-way, stable alliance that is sometimes called a sub-government because of its durability, impregnability, and power to determine policy.
An iron triangle can result in the passing of very narrow, pork-barrel policies that benefit a small segment of the population.
The interests of the agency's constituency the interest groups are met, while the needs of consumers which may be the general public are passed over. That public administration may result in benefiting a small segment of the public in this way may be viewed as problematic for the popular concept of democracy if the general welfare of all citizens is sacrificed for very specific interests.
This is especially so if the legislation passed neglects or reverses the original purpose for which the agency was established. Some maintain that such arrangements are consonant with and are natural outgrowths of the democratic process, since they frequently involve a majority block of voters implementing their will through their representatives in government.Political Report to the Tenth Cosatu National Congress.
Theme: Consolidating Working Class Power in Defense of Decent Work and for Socialism. Table of Contents. If approved, members of the lower house in the next Congress will earn a gross monthly salary of 37, pesos (US $1,) while senators will be paid 58, pesos (US $3,).
Max Weber, a German sociologist was one of the first people in modern times to think seriously about the importance of bureaucracy. The term actually comes from the French word "bureau," a reference to the small desks that the king's representatives set up in towns as . Donate via Mail: Brother Nathanael Foundation PO Box Priest River, ID The Indian National Congress (pronunciation (help · info)) (INC, often called Congress Party) is a broadly based political party in India.
Founded in , it was the first modern nationalist movement to emerge in the British Empire in Asia and Africa. From the late 19th century, and especially after , under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi, Congress became the principal leader of the.
Now when the government does something obnoxious, stupid and unconstitutional – and we avail ourselves of our First Amendment right and lobby Congress – they can lamely point at the Fourth Branch bureaucracy and say “It wasn’t us – it was them.”.